In November 1962, the Soviet government issued a decision “On establishing a space monitoring service”.

Presently the space monitoring service data sources are radar, optical and radiotechnical means of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, VIMPEL Interstate Corporation and a number of other organizations, capable of observing space objects, acquiring their coordinates and other information and communicating this information to the space monitoring service command station for accumulation, centralized processing, generalization, analysis and generation of output space environment data for various military and civil users.

In November 1962, the Soviet government issued a decision “On establishing a space monitoring service”.

By 1965, the 45th Central Research Institute of the USSR Ministry of Defense (45th CRI of USSR MoD) completed the basic design of the Space Monitoring System. In the same year, the 45th Institute becomes the leading organization for the design of a computer system for the Space Monitoring Center. By January 1970, state testing was completed and the Space Monitoring Center was adopted for operation. In the summer of 1970, SS interceptor successfully destroyed a space target using target designation data from the Space Monitoring Center.

In 1974, the Space Monitoring Center was linked to the existing missile attack and missile defense warning systems, which considerably increased the number of objects tracked in the space, from the usual 200-300 to several thousand per year.

In 1980, optoelectronic complexes were included in the space monitoring system.

At present, the space monitoring system includes:

  • Space defense and space monitoring command station
  • KRONA radar detection complex (Northern Caucasus, consists of a decimeter wave range radar, a centimeter wave range radar and a command and computer station)
  • OKNO optoelectronic complex (Tajikistan, four detection stations, two tracking stations and a command and computing station)
  • MOMENT radiotechnical complex (near Moscow, monitoring of radiating SC)
  • KRONA-N radar complex for detection and tracking of low-orbit SO (Far East)
  • Russian Federation system for warning of special SO overflight.